Essay Writing

Writing conclusion paragraph in an essay

A conclusion paragraph is a wrap-up of all your ideas which you have explained while writing the essay.

It should not introduce any new ideas which were previously not addressed in the essay. It can contain suggestions and recommendations.

Following structure can be followed to write a effective conclusion.

  • Conclusion/Final comments
    Start by providing feeling that the end of the essay has been reached
  • Rephrase thesis statement
    Restate thesis (mini-thesis) in different words but same exact meaning
  • Restate all points you made
    In very concise way present or restate all your ideas that you presented during the essay in the same logical manner that you used while writing the essay
  • Opinion, Suggestions and Recommendations
    Provide realistic but valuable opinions, suggestions and recommendations
  • Concluding Remarks
    At the end provide your concluding remarks. Choose the best of your words to end the essay. It should be a concluding statement which sums up the essay

Tip: Use transition words to nicely connect all the lines in the conclusion paragraph

Essay Writing

How to write body paragraphs in an essay

Structure of a body paragraph in an essay can be written using the following formula.

  1. Transitional statement (must lead reader into evidence)
  2. Topic statement (supporting your thesis)
  3. Evidence (facts, examples and analysis – Explain your evidence in 1 – 2 lines clarifying reason for its usage)
  4. Concluding statement (must reflect your stance – can be a result, recommendation or prediction)
  5. Transition to next paragraph (reflect what the next paragraph is going to be about)


  • 7 – 10 lines per paragraph (1 topic statement + 5-8 supporting sentences + 1 conclusion)
  • Each paragraph must represent only one theme

Apart from the structure above which represents a complete body paragraph, you can also write Transition Paragraphs to connect previous and upcoming paragraphs

Essay Writing

Structure of an essay

There are three parts of an essay:

  1. Introduction
  2. Body (all paragraphs between introduction and conclusion)
  3. Conclusion

Tips for recommend length of each of the parts above

  • An introduction should be at least 250 words
  • The body should be about 2250 words with approximately 15 paragraphs and each paragraph should have at least 150 words.
  • Conclusion should bring you to a specific end

If you are asked to write shorter or longer essay than the recommendations above, follow the guidelines and increase or reduce the no of paragraphs accordingly.

Essay Writing

Essay Writing

What is an Essay?

Before writing an essay it is important to understand what exactly is an essay. Also, it is very important to understand what an essay should be when you write one.

“an essay is an attempt or effort”

Oxford Dictionary

It is a piece of writing (short and concise) on a particular subject. If we look at these definitions from writing perspective than the later one makes more sense. So, an essay is just an attempt to write on a specific topic.

Why are essays important?

The importance of essays usually comes from the fact that these are widely employed by educational institutions and employers as tools to judge the analytical writing skills of students or candidates.

Quite commonly, candidates of the Civil Services recruitment exams (CSS/IAS/IPS) have to write an essay during the exams. Furthermore, essays provide examiners with the opportunity to judge writing skills of a person. However, you might be wondering how an essay can be used to judge other abilities of the candidates. Surely, you will understand all the aspects by the time you read this article completely.

Characteristics of an Essay

The first and the most important thing after the topic selection is the focus of an essay. An essay must be focused on one aspect of the topic. This means that you have to narrow down the topic to a particular statement called a Hypothesis which can be proved or disproved with arguments.

An essay must be objective and free from your personal preference and bias. Try not to write in first person. Also, it is important to analayze both positive and negative aspects of the topic if asked for analysis.

An essay must be organized in a logical order. This means all what you write (sentences, paragraphs, arguments etc.) should be in an order which makes it easier for the reader to understand. The reader should not read it more than one time to understand it.

Essay is the depiction of your thoughts and ideas about a particular topic. While this is true, it is also possible that some of your ideas are derived from the common perceptions and shared school of thought. For example, it is quite possible that you are inclined towards the ideas of a popular analyst or writer. However, it is highly advised not to copy someone’s ideas but to develop your own understanding. You can support your own ideas with the fact that popularly known political analysts also think the same way. It’s essentially the same thing but is a different approach of looking at

Make sure that you do your research on the topic very well. It means you might have to read a lot of books, articles, newspapers, and blogs and even watch talk shows. If it is a common topic make sure you know the history, current happenings and the predicted future of that topic. Also, make sure to develop your own opinion on the topic. This is extremely important and the examiners are particularly looking for this in your essay.

Often it has been noticed that when students or candidates are asked to write an essay in English, they immediately think of it as a test of English. They try to use a lot of idiomatic terms and difficult or classy English vocabulary to impress the examiner. This assumption, however, is not entirely true. Although English language is the medium through which you are communicating with the reader, using difficult language would reduce chances of a reader to understand it completely. It is therefore important and wise to use vocabulary which is simple and easier to understand. Try to use words which are simple yet meaningful. Using of one-words is recommended so that the writer of an essay can communicate the message to the reader in less number of words hence less chances of confusion.


“Brevity is the soul of wit”

William Shakespeare

\r\nWhen you are writing an essay, it is important that whatever your write can communicate effectively in as simplistic manner as possible. However, it does not mean that you take a lot of lines to explain or use complex sentences for that. Instead of that you should write in way that uses the minimum possible sentences to explain without repeating the idea.

To communicate your ideas successfully, it is important that whatever you write should be complete in its sense. The idea should not lack necessary information. It should not confuse the reader and must not create false impressions of what you were originally intending to convey. Therefore, the completeness is very important and while writing an essay it is very important that you write an essay with brevity but not missing any important information.

While doing everything stated above, do not forget about the correctness of your ideas. Make sure that you only convey ideas which are correct and factual.

Suggested weightage of the contents of an essay

Introduction 10%
Conclusion 10%
Use of literature 25%
Knowledge 20%
Ethical Reasoning 15%
Critical Analysis 20%

Essay Writing

Key terms used in essay question

Account for
Give reasons for, explain why something happens

Break up into parts; examine in close detail, identify key points and main features

Look for similarities and differences between; possibly; conclude which is preferable

Set two or more opposing arguments in order to identify the differences. If appropriate give reasons why one may be preferable

Critically Evaluate
Weigh arguments for and against, assessing the strengths and limitations on both sides. Use literature to guide your discussion as to which views are preferable

Clearly state the meaning(s) of a word or phrase

Give the main characteristics or features of something, outline the main events

Investigate or examine by argument; sift and debate; give reasons for and against; consider the implications

Assess the worth, importance or usefulness of something ie theories or opinions by using evidence. Support the judgment by discussing evidence and reasoning

Look closely in detail

Make clear why something happens / is the way it is

Examine thoroughly; consider from various viewpoints

Make clear and explicit giving examples of evidence

Show adequate grounds why a decision or conclusions were made; consider the objections others might make

Give the main features or general principles of a subject, omitting minor details and emphasizing structure and interrelations

Show similarities and connections between two or more things and to what extent they are alike and affect each other

Present in brief, clear form -like a simple list but written in sentence format

Give a concise account of the main points of a matter, omitting details and examples

Essay Writing

Writing an essay introduction

An introduction should follow naturally from a general idea to a specific statement.

Typically, it consists of the following parts:

  1. Grabber or Hook – Catchy start (optional)
  2. Topic Statement (Must address the topic of the essay by rephrasing the topic and taking a stance on the topic i.e. by taking one side of the debate – for or against)
  3. Thesis statement – Blueprint of reasons (A clear statement about the course of your essay and what specific areas you want to address in your essay)
Essay Writing

Transition Words

For continuing a common line of reasoning:

clearly, then
in addition
besides that
in the same way
following this further
pursuing this further
in the light of the… it is easy to see that

To change the line of reasoning (contrast):

on the other hand
on the contrary

 For opening a paragraph initially or for general use:

no doubt
nobody denies
of course
to be sure
generally speaking
in general
at this level
in this situation

 For the final points of a paragraph or essay:


Transitional chains, to use in separating sections of a paragraph which is arranged chronologically:

first… second… third…
generally… furthermore… finally
in the first place… also… lastly
in the first place… pursuing this further… finally
to be sure… additionally… lastly
in the first place… just in the same way… finally
basically… similarly… as well

 To signal conclusion:

in final analysis
in conclusion
in final consideration

 To restate a point within a paragraph in another way or in a more exacting way:

in other words
point in fact

 Sequence or time

as soon as
at first
at last
before long
first… second… third
in the first place
in the meantime


Team Lead vs Technical Lead

Team lead and Technical lead (also known as Tech lead) are two different roles which require different kind of skills. However, some times it is the same person who perform both roles.

Team Leader

  • Team focused
  • Resolves individual issues
  • Reports to Management
  • Evaluates team’s performance
  • Helps team members grow personally and professionally
  • Communicates within the team
  • Ensures processes are being followed

Technical Lead

  • Tech focused
  • Usually the most experienced in the team
  • Shares technical knowledge within the team
  • Guides and trains junior developers
  • Performs code reviews
  • Translates technical ideas for non-technical people
  • Ensures technical best practices are followed
  • A goto person for technical questions


What is Agile

The word ‘Agile’ stems from agility which is the quality or ability to move quickly and easily. The same concept has been embodied into a software development methodology called Agile Methodology.

Unlike the traditional approaches to software development (for example Waterfall), Agile is about responding to changes in a timely and efficient manner. It focuses more on the evolution of the software based on the feedback or changes in requirements. It requires the team members to collaborate and advocates that the teams should be cross-functional.